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History of Policing in America

Autor:   •  February 21, 2019  •  1,210 Words (5 Pages)  •  631 Views

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very limited impact on reducing crime levels, allaying citizens’ fear of crime, and increasing community satisfaction with police service. (look up Kansas City patrol experiment, and elaborate on topics in bullet)

- The idea that a closer partnership between the police and local residents could help reduce crime and disorder began to emerge throughout the 1970s.

- This was appealing to police departments because the recognition that the police and the community were co-producers of police services spread the blame for increasing crime rates. (reword and cite)

- Project in San Diego tested this out by encouraging line officers to identify and solve community problems on their beats. (reword and cite)

- In the late 1970’s researchers and police (practitioners) started to focus more on the specific elements associated with community oriented policing. The catalyst for this change was the reimplementation of foot patrol in U.S. cities.

- In 1978, Flint, Michigan was the first city to create a city-wide program that had officers walking their assigned beats instead of patrolling in a car.

- A similar program was released shortly after in Newark, New Jersey.

Community policing


- Herman Goldstein proposed a new approach, (problem oriented policing) to policing that helped (synthesize) some of the key elements of community policing into a broader and more innovative framework. (reword and cite)

- It involved foot patrol and police-community cooperation, they were integral parts of his approach and distinguished problem-oriented policing. (reword and cite)

- Goldstein showed how increased cooperation between the police and community could do more than reduce fear of crime. (cite)

- In 1986 problem-oriented policing programs were implemented in Baltimore County, Maryland, and Newport News, Virginia. In Baltimore County, they had small units of fifteen officers that were assigned to specific problems and responsible for successfully resolving them. Whereas in Newport News, police officers worked with the community to identify crimes.

- Different police strategies became useful, such as storefront community police stations and community-organizing police response team. They were successful in reducing citizens fear of crime (cite)

- From 1988 to 1990, the National Institute of Justice sponsored the Perspectives on Policing Seminars at Harvard University’s Kennedy School or Government. This helped the (popularization) of these (innovations) in policing and assisted scholars and practitioners refine and (synthesize) the mixture of ideas and approaches labeled -community-and problem-oriented policing.

Modern Police tactics and philosophies


- Community policing had become very popular by the 1990’s as a national movement and part of everyday policing (parlance) (cite? Reword?)

- Implementation of community policing reforms were driven across the country by federal funds made available through the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS*).

- The studying of community policing became very (prevalent), the political appeal of community policing and its close (affinity) to long-term trends in societal organization contributed to the widespread acceptance of community policing. (reword and cite)

- Politicians pleased their constituents by providing an approach to law that promised to improve police

- At the (outset) of the twenty-first century, the momentum behind community policing shows no signs of slowing down (reword).


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