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Adaptive Traffic Light - Capacity Planning

Autor:   •  November 6, 2018  •  4,320 Words (18 Pages)  •  4 Views

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[pic 7]

Fig 6 Diode

In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance to the flow of current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals. A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a heated cathode. Semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes, developed around 1906, were made of mineral crystals such as galena. Today, most diodes are made of silicon, but other semiconductors such as selenium or germanium are sometimes used.

Chapter 3.3: Regulator (7805)

Voltage regulator, any electrical or electronic device that maintains the voltage of a power source within acceptable limits. The voltage regulator is needed to keep voltages within the prescribed range that can be tolerated by the electrical equipment using that voltage.

[pic 8]

Fig 7 Voltage regulator

A LM7805 Voltage Regulator is a voltage regulator that outputs +5 volts.

An easy way to remember the voltage output by a LM78XX series of voltage regulators is the last two digits of the number. A LM7805 ends with "05"; thus, it outputs 5 volts. The "78" part is just the convention that the chip makers use to denote the series of regulators that output positive voltage. The other series of regulators, the LM79XX, is the series that outputs negative voltage. So:

LM78XX: Voltage regulators that output positive voltage, "XX"=voltage output. LM79XX: Voltage regulators that output negative voltage, "XX"=voltage output

The LM7805, like most other regulators, is a three-pin IC.Pin 1 (Input Pin): The Input pin is the pin that accepts the incoming DC voltage, which the voltage regulator will eventually regulate down to 5 volts. Pin 2 (Ground): Ground pin establishes the ground for the regulator. Pin 3 (Output Pin): The Output pin is the regulated 5 volts DC.

Chapter 3.4: LED

Basically, LEDs are just tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. But unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs, they don't have a filament that will burn out, and they don't get especially hot. They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they last just as long as a standard transistor. The lifespan of an LED surpasses the short life of an incandescent bulb by thousands of hours.

[pic 9]

Fig 8 LED

Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic devices, replacing small incandescent bulbs. They were soon packaged into numeric readouts in the form of seven-segment displays, and were commonly seen in digital clocks.

Recent developments in LEDs permit them to be used in environmental and task lighting. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are now used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, advertising, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes and lighted wallpaper. As of 2015, LEDs powerful enough for room lighting remain somewhat more expensive, and require more precise current and heat management, than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

Chapter 3.5: Resistors

Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines among other uses. High-power resistors, that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are also implemented with integrated circuits.

The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. The nominal value of the resistance will fall within a manufacturing tolerance.

[pic 10]

Fig 9 Resistor

In this system we have used many resistors and resistor array. The value of the resistors used are 470, 10 K ohm along with a variable resistor. Use of resistor is important as the LED will get damaged if it is not connected to the resistor but directly to the power supply.

Chapter 3.6: Capacitor

A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store electrical energy temporarily in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric (i.e. an insulator that can store energy by becoming polarized). The conductors can be thin films, foils or sintered beads of metal or conductive electrolyte, etc. The non conducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. A dielectric can be glass, ceramic, plastic film, air, vacuums, paper, mica, oxide layer etc. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. Instead, a capacitor stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field between its plates.

When there is a potential difference across the conductors (e.g.,


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