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Advanced Research Methods

Autor:   •  March 7, 2018  •  3,288 Words (14 Pages)  •  197 Views

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Spain conducted research in 2011 to understand the performance of its tourism and other countries tourism. To measure performance of tourism, various advanced research methods usually used. Investors, various tourism and hospitality organizations carried out research in different time to formulate their strategies, design operations. Marketers design branding strategy with the help of research because research helps them to find out needs, wants and demand of tourists.

2.1 Range of research philosophies.

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy refers to the system in which the research problem is primarily analyzed, and this includes: positivism, realism and interpretivism. (Davies, 2007)

Positivism: The positivism mainly connected with empiricism, which works with visible evidences. The essential philosophy at the rear of positivism is usually that, all factual knowledge is based upon the positive information gathered from observable experience, any idea beyond this particular realm connected with demonstrable evidence which is theoretical. Only logical statements are acceptable to be called true, via reason alone (Davies, 2007).

Interpretivism: It is thought that the world and truth aren't objective and external, however usually it is socially developed and people give meaning. This particular view is called as the qualitative strategy and also is dependent on an inductive procedure. (Rea and Parker, 2006).

Realism: It is based on the belief that a reality is present which is liberated from human opinions and beliefs, and that can affect their perceptions either consciously or unconsciously (Rea and Parker, 2006).

2.2 Range of sources of information to support and develop research.

Sources of information are usually categorized as primary, secondary or tertiary depending on their uniqueness and their proximity to the source or origin (Davies, 2007).

Primary source: Primary sources are authentic materials on which other research is based. They are generally the first formal presence of results in the print or electronic literature. Primary sources characterize original thinking, report on discoveries, or provide new information (Dawson, 2013).

Different sources are- scientific journal articles reporting experimental research results, proceedings of meetings, conferences and symposia, technical reports, dissertations or theses, patents, sets of data, such as census statistics and Interviews, surveys and fieldwork etc.

Secondary sources: Bibliographies, biographical works, commentaries, dictionaries and encyclopedias, dissertations or theses, handbooks and data compilations , history, indexing and abstracting tools used to locate primary & secondary sources, journal articles, particularly in disciplines other than science, monographs (other than fiction and autobiography), articles of popular newspaper and periodicals, review articles and literature reviews etc. (Dawson, 2013).

Tertiary sources: This type of sources are reformatted and condensed information, collected from secondary sources, to put it into an easy-to-read form. It is also sources which are once erased from secondary sources.

2.3 The different approaches to research.

There are four approaches to research- Quantitative, Qualitative, Pragmatic and Advocacy approach.

Quantitate approach

It usually involves collecting and converting data into mathematical form so that calculations can be completed and conclusions drawn. Objectivity is very important in this approach. Consequently, researchers acquire great care to avoid their very own presence, behavior or attitude affecting the outcomes (e.g. changing the situation being researched or causing participants in order to behave differently). In addition, they critically analyze their techniques and conclusions for any possible bias (Oliver, 2010).

Qualitative approach

Qualitative research is the approach usually from the social constructivist paradigm which often emphasizes l socially created nature involving reality. It really is about recording, analyzing and trying to uncover the actual deeper meaning and significance of people behavior as well as experience, including contradictory beliefs, behaviors as well as emotions. Researchers want i complex comprehension of people’s experience and not in getting information and this can be generalized to other bigger groups (Oliver, 2010).

Pragmatic approach

The pragmatic approach of investigation involves using the procedure which in turn seems suitable for the investigation problem and never receiving swept up inside philosophical arguments with regards to which in turn is the foremost tactic. Realistic analysts consequently take the liberty to utilize some of the strategies, tactics along with actions usually related to quantitative or perhaps qualitative investigation. They will identify that every single procedure has their restrictions and diverse methods can be complementary (Oliver, 2010).

Advocacy approach

Researchers adopt an advocacy or participatory approach feeling that the methods to research defined so far are not reflecting to the needs or condition of people from marginalized or susceptible groups. The researchers chose relatively a more reduced amount of neutral position than the usual requirement of scientific research. The approach might include cooperating casually or even living amongst the research participants (Oliver, 2010).

3.1 Appropriate research methods in tourism and hospitality

Hospitality and tourism as a social science field, scholars should deal with multiple self-sufficient and centered variables. What basically matters is the fact that findings are generally communicated to help readers from the journals. Therefore, tourism specialist should work with more innovative methods to possess a better idea of topics studied and also to provide livelier information and much more advanced information to both equally scholars and also industry providers. Educators need to make sure that learners and experts receive ideal statistical methods training. (Dawson, 2013).

The progression and maturity of a discipline or field is highly related to the use of multiple methodologies (Brinberg & McGrath, 1985). This calls for directing multiple studies and using multiple research methods and strategies


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