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Ethical Treatment of Participants

Autor:   •  September 11, 2017  •  3,228 Words (13 Pages)  •  197 Views

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“Five Principles for Research Ethics” discusses five principles that should be used or performed to establish ethics in research. The first principle discussed was intellectual property. Intellectual property is who receives credit for the work or findings. Ethical an individual should only take credit for the work or findings he or she developed or found. It is unethical for a researcher to credit him or herself for a cure or solution when they did not find the solution. In research intellectual property is only determined once the research is complete and a solution is found. The second principle is being aware of multiple roles. Performing multiple roles could increase harm or misshapen to research participants. Multiple roles increase room for error and confusion. The third principle is following the rules of the informed consent. “The consent process ensures that individuals are voluntarily participating in the research with full knowledge of relevant risks and benefits”. (Smith, 2003) Following the consent will help researchers avoid potential risk that could cause harm to the participant. The fourth principle is respecting participant’s confidentiality and privacy. If a researcher does not protect a participant’s confidentiality it is considered unethical. A researcher should take all precautions necessary to protect all personal information involved with all participants. The fifth principle is tap into ethics resources. “One of the best ways researchers can avoid and resolve ethical dilemmas is to know both what their ethical obligations are and what resources are available to them” (Smith, 2003).

“Research ethics: How to Treat People who Participate in Research” discusses seven principles used to prevent unethical behavior in research. The first principle is social value. Social value is determined by whether the study with improve health or well-being. Participants need to understand and know the purpose of the study or research. Ethical a study must have a purpose and direction, to be beneficial. It is not ethical to endanger the well-being of a participant if it does not benefit any cause or individual. Scientific Validity is the second principle. Scientific validity is the meaning that research will develop beneficial outcomes and increase data. The third principle is fair subject selection which means researcher must be bias when choosing participants for research. Fair subject selection is ethical to ensure accurate methods in research and precise results. The fourth principle is favorable risk-benefit ratio. “For research to be ethical, any risks must be balanced by the benefits to subjects, and/or the important new knowledge society will gain. This comparison is known as the risk-benefit ratio”. (Abdoler, 2009) Independent review is the fifth principle. Independent review is when an outside source or group of individuals not related to the study look over all information and data to ensure no information is being messed. The sixth principle is informed consent. Informed consent is when participants are explained all information in reference to the study and provide understanding. The seventh principle is respect for enrolled subjects meaning the research must ethical provide respect and positive judgment for participants.

Ethical Principles and Guidelines for Research Involving Human Subjects explains basic ethical principles such a respect. Respecting participants consist of treating them as humans not just a test subject and protecting them from all possible harm. Beneficence is when researchers treat the participants with kindness and compassionate. Justice is being fair and treating all participants equal. All participants need to have informed consent to completely understand the procedures associated with the study. “The research procedure, their purposes, risks and anticipated benefits, alternative procedures (where therapy is involved), and a statement offering the subject the opportunity to ask questions and to withdraw at any time from the research”. (U.S., 1979) Comprehension is used to deliver all information to the participants in an organized and professional manner. It is ethical for participants to comprehend all information. Participants cannot be forced to participate in a study. It is unethical and can be lawful to force anyone to do something against their will. “Since 1945, various codes for the proper and responsible conduct of human experimentation in medical research have been adopted by different organizations. The best known of these codes are the Nuremberg Code of 1947, the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 (revised in 1975), and the 1971 Guidelines (codified into Federal Regulations in 1974) issued by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Codes for the conduct of social and behavioral research have also been adopted, the best known being that of the American Psychological Association, published in 1973”. (U.S. 1979)

“The Vigil of Ethical Research” by Julie Ozanne discussing the struggle amongst ethical stability concerning the effect of producing harm and the positive effect of producing straight advantage for research participants. Principles are enforced to reduce possible harm to research participants. “An ethical vigil is a useful metaphor for doing field work given this research involves a complex process that unfolds over time and involves navigating relationships where power inequities exist”. (Ozanne, 2012) Expanding the ethical vigil can become an unethical issue. Researchers must focus on the study and participants involved to have focus on the procedures. Expanding to different areas can cause the researcher to become unorganized. If a researcher is unorganized it cause mistake in their work and could possibly harm participants. Ethical a researcher could restrict a study to a particular group that is being effected to focus on the material. The most benefit from research is during the end when the findings are being distributed and concluded. Participations and researchers should both benefit from the study, in doing so ethical precautious should be made while still gathering all essential information for the study.

Research Ethics by Lizbeth Adams Ph. D explains methods used to protect participants in research studies. During World War II Nazi doctors killed individuals during research studies, which lead to Germany developing the Nuremberg Code which has 10 principles researchers should abide by when using participants for research. After the Nuremburg Code numerous guidelines and rules have been established by national and international areas. All guidelines and rules “share a common purpose: to protect the autonomy, safety, privacy, and welfare of human research subjects. Within institutions where clinical research is conducted, responsibility for the interpretation


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