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Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes Produce Important Effects on Language Production

Autor:   •  November 7, 2018  •  1,452 Words (6 Pages)  •  4 Views

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Inflection is a morphological process that adapts existing words so that they function effectively in sentences without changing the category of the base morpheme. To start with this topic, all inflectional morphemes in English are suffixes and are added after any derivational suffixes. The most common inflectional morphemes are used in verb inflection for example, -ed in raced, -ing in racing, -s in races but there are suffixes for noun inflection for example, plural -s in horses and possessive -'s in Norma's and adjective inflection for example, comparative -er in faster and superlative -est in fastest. To go deeper into the topic; English has the following Verb inflectional suffixes. First of all, the suffix –s functions in the Present Simple as the third person marking of the verb to work – he work-s. Second, the suffix –ed functions in the past simple as the past tense marker in regular verbs: to love – lov-ed. Third, the suffixes –ed regular verbs and –en for some regular verbs function in the marking of the past participle and, in general, in the marking of the perfect aspect: To study studied studied / To eat ate eaten. Fourth, the suffix –ing functions in the marking of the present participle, the gerund and in the marking of the continuous aspect, To eat – eating / To study – studying. Noun inflectional suffixesThe suffix –s functions in the marking of the plural of nouns: dog – dogs, the suffix –s functions as a possessive marker (saxon genitive): Laura – Laura’s book and finally, adjective inflectional suffixes such as, The suffix –er functions as comparative marker: quick – quicker and the suffix –est functions as superlative marker: quick – quickest. To conclude, Inflectional morphology is customarily distinguished from derivational morphology or word formation. According to A.Y. Aikhenvald, Derivational morphology results in the creation of a new word with a new meaning. In contrast, inflectional morphology involves an obligatory grammatical specification characteristic of a word class.

To conclude, Morphology is the structure of words. That words have divided into parts which still have meaning, besides languages create new words systematically and the meaningful parts into which words can be divided are called the morphemes of the language, so these Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful unit of a language In addition, words that have meaning by themselves boy, food, and door are called lexical morphemes. Those words that function to specify the relationship between one lexical morpheme and another words like are called grammatical morphemes. In a like manner, those morphemes that can stand alone as words are called free morphemes. The morphemes that occur only in combination are called bound morphemes. There are two types of morphemes; free morphemes and bound morphemes. "Free morphemes" can stand alone with a specific meaning, "Bound morphemes" cannot stand alone with meaning. Morphemes are comprised of two separate classes called (a) bases (or roots) and (b) affixes. Taking these into account, an affix is a Bound grammatical morphemes and can be further divided into two types: inflectional and derivational morphemes.

REFERENCES

http://english.tutorvista.com/literary-response/affixes.html

http://grammar.about.com/od/d/g/Derivational-Morpheme.htm

http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/prefix.htm

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