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Sociology - the Sociological Perspective

Autor:   •  January 27, 2018  •  10,582 Words (43 Pages)  •  259 Views

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- Mistrust of theories that can have macro or micro orientation

- In its core is ant-theory and anti-methods

- “Human sciences can’t be scientific because of human subjectivity”

- Seek to observe other societies without applying conceptual baggage of their own

- Goal of achieving understanding/ a vision rather than data

Sociology of Sports:

- Structural-Functional view:

- Sports can help society operate

- Manifest functions: providing recreation, getting in shape, let off steam

- Latent functions: building social relationships, creating jobs

- Sports encourage competition and teamwork

- International athletes (pride and solidarity for our country)

- Social organization/structure (Ex: NHL)

- Social Conflict view:

- Games people play reflect social standing

- Expensive sports limited to the affluent

- Other sports are available for everyone (soccer, baseball, basketball)

- Social class and race affect which sports you play

- Gender inequality also exists from excluding women to limited access to rinks and fields

- Physical disabilities contribute to inequality

- Symbolic Interaction view:

- Meaning or “symbol” of sports such as hockey are felt by our nation

- Interactions between fans, teammates, players and parents

- Shared understanding of symbols allows game to proceed (goal, offence, rules)

Chapter 2; Sociological Investigation:

Basics of Sociological Investigation:

- Two simple requirements…

- Apply the sociological perspective (reveals patterns of behaviour)

- Be curious and ask questions

Science as One Type of Truth:

- One kind of knowing is “belief” or “faith” (belief in God though no direct contact)

- Second kind rests on pronouncement of a recognized expert (parents with questions about raising kids ask psychologists or paediatricians who’s practices are “right”)

- Third type based on simple agreement among ordinary people (everyone “knows” sex at 10 years old is wrong)

- Peoples “truths” differ all over the world (Ex: Latin farmer places dead fish over seed as an offering to God, we see scientific truth of decomposition)

- Science: a logical system that bases knowledge on direct/systematic observations

- Scientific knowledge rests on empirical evidence: information we can verify with our senses

Common Senses vs. Scientific Evidence:

- 6 Statements many of us believe are true:

- Poor people are far more likely than rich people to break the law

- Canada is a middle class society in which people are more or less equal

- Poor people don’t want to work

- Differences in the behaviour of females/males are just human nature

- People change as they grow old, losing interests as they focus on health

- Most people marry because they are in love

Three Ways to Do Sociology:

- Scientific sociology

- Study of society based on systematic observation of social behaviour

- Discover reality by gathering empirical evidence we can verify using our senses

- Concept: mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form (gender, ethnicity, social class)

- Variable: concept whose value changes from case to case (social class to identify lower middle, upper and working class)

- Measurement: a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case (measuring social class you may look at clothing or home address)

- Operationalize a variable: specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable

- Measurement must have reliability: consistency in measurement

- Measurement must have validity: actually measuring exactly what you intended to (measuring religion doesn’t really just mean attendance at mass/worship)

- Once measurements are made a scientist can then see how variables are related

- Cause and effect: A relationship where changing one variable changes another

- Independent variable: variable which causes the change

- Dependent variable: the variable that changes

- Correlation: relationship in which two (or more) variable change together

- Spurious correlation: apparent but false relationship between two (or more) variables that is caused by another variable

- Control: Holding constant all variables except one in order to clearly see the effect of that variable

- Objectivity: personal neutrality in conduction research

- Do limit distortion caused by personal values one uses replication: repetition of research by other investigators

Limitations of Scientific Sociology:

- Human behaviour is too complex for sociologists to predict one’s actions precisely (no one will react the exact same way. Sociologists must be satisfied

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