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Analyzing Social Aspect of Fertility, Regional Fertility Differentials and Challenges to Effective Population Control Mechanism in Africa

Autor:   •  January 8, 2018  •  1,835 Words (8 Pages)  •  157 Views

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Religious factor; One of the population policy recommendations in Africa is the increased use of family planning methods in order to help control the population; but it is worth noting that various religious bodies majorly the Catholic Church has been criticizing the modern contraception as not recommended and against religious doctrine. Due to this religious teachings, majority of the followers are not practicing family planning methods, hence, subjects population policymakers into a greater challenge to effective population control given that family planning especially contraception has been given a rule of thumb by various government in Africa as one of the appropriate way of population control mechanism.

National Population Agencies in Africa are not effective to promptly deal with population problems. According to National Population Council in Ghana (1994), some twenty- five years after National Population Policy was first promulgated, the country’s population growth still remain at an unacceptably high level, and the population factor continues to act as a serious impediment to the country match towards economic modernization, sustainable development and eradication of poverty. There is need for a political organization, especially international or local agencies which are effective that would work towards coordination of activities towards population growth. There is need for fertility oriented population policies if they are to yield.

Maternal and Child Health; According to WHO (2006), while the main thrust of strategies in the area of MCH in almost all Africa countries is to reduce high infant mortality, childhood and maternal morbidity and mortality rates especially in the rural and sub-urban area, using the most cost-effective strategies within the context of the Primary Healthcare Programmes, incidences of child or infant mortality still persist. Hence high mortality rate is countered by high fertility in this particular context. To reduce chances of infant mortality rate in Africa so that effective population control mechanism to be realized, safe motherhood programmes should be expanded and implemented to help reduce the incidence of high risk births and also to intensify effort to raise the educational level of females through both formal and non-formal means to help reduce mortality rate.

Socio-economic factors as a challenge to effective Population Control mechanisms. Low income level in a given society affects access to healthcare facilities hence this can increase mortality rate among different ages. The existence of poverty and famine among different population also affects population control policies formulation because; they trigger immigration and emigration from one region to another. Famine also cause malnutrition among different population hence leads to high mortality rates. In order for effective population control mechanism to be achieved in Africa, effort should be made to promote, develop and sustain the informal sector to play a vital role in employment generation and thereby contribute to the alleviation of poverty and National Health Insurance Scheme to be implemented to ensure that the majority of the population including the poor, have access to good medical care.

HIV/Aids pandemic and other killer diseases; while various nations of Africa are struggling to enhance population control for socio-economic development towards realization of sustainable development goals and objectives, various killer diseases like HIV/Aids, Ebola and Cancer among other diseases become a challenge to effective population control. First, a lot of resources and financial support are channeled to help control these diseases through provision of healthcare facilities, drugs and welfare development facilities in return; there is lack of sufficient funds from the government to help implement these population policies in Africa (WHO, 2006).

Availability of contraceptives in the society and unmet need for family planning; in most developed countries according to Go et al(1995), factors significant for reduction of fertility include availability of contraceptives. Modern contraceptives are a cheap way to reduce maternal deaths from dangerous abortion. They free parents from the burden of unwanted pregnancies and they help to create lower fertility, high income societies that benefit everyone. Difficulties in accessing contraception therefore affect population control; hence the government should provide them universally given that issues of abortion and sterilization are illegal in almost all Africa countries that have explicit policies, yet experiences in Western countries show that abortion is crucial component to limit trends of fertility level. Some women also use contraceptives with aim of spacing their families but not actually to control birth.

In conclusion, there is no doubt that the population problems in Africa are real and challenging. The impact of the effect of high birth and death rate, increasing population sizes and density, rapid population growth and increasing dependency burden all translates into greater demand for Africa government in productive activities which in turn accentuate the problem of unemployment, underemployment, persistent poverty, urban slums, crime, mortality rates and political unrest. To the extent that population variables influence development, Africa should enhance effective population control mechanisms to achieve both socio-economic and sustainable development goals and objectives.

REFERENCES

Reolalas et al (1995) Regional variation in Philippine fertility: An exposure for analysis 1993. National Statistics Office, East-West Center.

Go et al (1995) Asia- Pacific Population and Policy: Regional fertility variation in Philippine. National Statistic Office, East-West Center.

Ocholla-Ayayo et al (2000) Population and Development in Kenya. School of Journalism Press, Nairobi.

United Nations (2006) World Health Organization Report on Health and Demography, New York

Republic of Ghana (1994) National Population Council Report. Ghana, Accra

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