- Get Free Essays and Term Papers

The Effect of Sports and Extracurricular Activity on Njupt Students

Autor:   •  November 30, 2018  •  2,845 Words (12 Pages)  •  90 Views

Page 1 of 12


Yet, different types of schools may provide different opportunities to participate in such activities. While existing research has examined important individual-level influences on participation, such as socioeconomic status, it has largely neglected the possible existence of structural inequalities in opportunities to participate and whether any structural inequalities might pertain to all types of activities (e.g., Eitle and Eitle, 2002; McNeal, 1998).

In other words, few have investigated whether the presence of activities in and of themselves is associated with academic outcomes, or whether student participation mediates this link. In conceptualizing the link between activities, participation, and outcomes, we draw heavily on recent research on opportunity structure theory, which distinguishes between structurally-based resources, the investments people make in resources (within the constraint of resource availability), and their influence on various outcomes (Charles et al., 2007; Roscigno et al., 2006).

2.1 Literature review

They were literacy clubs that consisted of different debate clubs and Greek systems such as fraternities and sororities. Students in American schools were the first to initiate athletic clubs. (Casinger, J. 2011) These soon became popular and literacy clubs began to decline. Around the time of World War I, schools started adding clubs such as journalism, and newspaper. (Casinger, J. 2011) Now these clubs have become popular and many public high schools and grade schools have clubs for all interests. Today about 1 in 4 students participate in academic clubs. (Miller, Zittleman, 2010, 189) It costs about $250 million to establish extracurricular activities in rural and inner city schools. (Girod et al., 2005, 64) The USDE funds school‟s extracurricular activities.

Education world states that “Participation in school activities, especially athletics, leads to higher selfesteem and enhanced status among peers, which some argue is deterrent to antisocial behavior.” (Brown, M.D., 2000) The most dangerous time for bad behavior is the time after school and before parents get home, which is usually the time between three o‟clock and seven o‟clock. (Holloway, J. H., 2002) This is the time when they are at the most risk at committing violent acts and victimization. The ages that usually are involved in poor behavior during this time are between twelve and seventeen years old. (Howie et al. 2010, 120) Between the ages of nine and seventeen is when kids learn to make their own decisions and control their behavior.

If students don‟t like school, it is usually because they do not feel as though they are succeeding or that they can succeed. “Participation in an after school program that is designed to build self-esteem, had positive effects on standards test scores in math and reading, while receiving extended time to complete homework did not have the same positive effects on self-esteem or achievements”. (Cosden et al., 2004, 223) Participation in extracurricular activities provides students an opportunity to create a positive and voluntary connection to their school.

This is especially important for students who belong to ethnic minorities, students with disabilities, and at risk of dropping out because students in some of these groups have almost a 40% drop out rate. (Casinger, 2011) Engagement in extracurricular activities is linked to decreasing rates of early dropout rates in both boys and girls. Sports are one of the biggest extracurricular activities to have effects on students. The athletic programs reduce the dropout rate by 40 %. (Holloway, J. H., 2002) There are also laws that are for kids in sports.

2.2 Research objective

The study was conducted to all classes of students in NJUPT. The study was carried out with the following objectives:

- To estimate effects of sports and extracurricular activities in NJUPT.

- To measure the degree of mental and physical satisfaction among students as per their extracurricular appearances.

- To find the capacity of organizing events and enable for managerial and leadership activities.

2.3 Hypothesis testing

The null hypothesis, H0 represents a theory that has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but has not been proved. The alternative hypothesis, H1, is a statement of what a statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish.

H0: µ

H1: µ > µHo i.e population mean is lesser than hypothysed mean

2.4 Data methodology

Primary data would be collected for conducting the research work.

2.4.1 Primary Data Collection

Primary data will be collected through questionnaire surveys in order to discover the employee turnover intention and its disclosures. Both closed and open ended questions will be used in the questionnaire. The questionnaire would be finalized after proper pre-testing of it. The language of the questionnaire will be simple and easily understood.

2.4.2 Selection of Samples

The samples will be selected through sampling conveniently.

2.4.3 Data Analysis and interpretation

Data analysis and interpretation will be carried in accordance with the objectives listed above. Data analysis includes editing, classifying and tabulating the collected data. However, because of the nature of the study, analysis and interpretation will be descriptive. Also a framework of the study will be made after studying various books literature, dissertations, articles and research relating to employee turnover intention. Moreover, to make the study more pragmatic and successful, SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) will be used for calculating descriptive statistics and MS Excel would be used for analysis. Descriptive statistical analyses will be used in the research to identify the compliance and deviations between theoretical base and reality in the turnover intention practice. Interpretation will be made in accordance with the research objectives with a focus of minimizing information redundancy.





Download:   txt (22.8 Kb)   pdf (166.5 Kb)   docx (35.1 Kb)  
Continue for 11 more pages »
Only available on