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Co-Occurring Disorders

Autor:   •  November 26, 2017  •  2,392 Words (10 Pages)  •  205 Views

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“Mood disorders represent a distinct and prolonged period of abnormally low or elevated mood disturbance” (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). Two specific examples of mood disorders include bipolar illness, and depression. Daley and Moss write, “Bipolar illness is a clinical mood disorder with alternating episodes of mania and depression (206). There are also different types of bipolar illness. Bipolar I happens when an individual experiences full manic episodes. Bipolar II occurs when a person experiences a hypo manic episode. A hypo manic episode is similar to a manic episode, but they are much less severe (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). Sometimes people with bipolar illness experience symptoms close to depression, but the mood disorder is different. “The main feature of major depression is a depressed mood or loss of interest in most or all of one's usual activities” (Daley and Moss 165). People with a major depressive disorder have symptoms such as feeling guilty or worthless, low energy levels, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin).

“Anxiety disorders are... a disturbance in the way the body responds to the threat of danger” (Daley and Moss 233). Anxiety disorders are quite common. Daley and Moss have stated, Anxiety disorders are “Among the most frequent psychiatric problems in the adult population” (234). Panic disorder, PTSD, and OCD are all types of anxiety disorders. An individual with panic disorder experiences recurrent and unexpected panic attacks (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). Women are more likely to have panic disorder than men are. According to Daley and Moss, they're two times more likely (235). Another anxiety disorder is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. OCD is “manifested through obsessions or compulsions” (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). Sometimes people practice their obsessions or compulsions in order to prevent a dreaded event. For example, a person might turn their bathroom light switch on and off a certain amount of times because they believe it will prevent the death of a loved one. A third anxiety disorder is PTSD, or post traumatic stress disorder. The victims that experience PTSD usually re-experience the event in some way. PTSD is especially common in military veterans that were involved in heavy combat (Daley and Moss 257).

A third category of mental illnesses is personality disorders. “About 60 % of clients with substance use disorders also have personality disorders” (Daley and Moss 99). Schizophrenia and Antisocial disorder are among the many personality disorders. A schizotypal personality disorder affects about 3 percent of the population. The people who have schizotypal personality may experience a brief psychotic disorder in response to stress, and more than half experience at least one episode of major depression (Daley and Moss 106). Another personality disorder is antisocial personality disorder, or ASP. ASP possesses about 3% of males and about 1% of females in America (Daley and Moss 113). People with ASP have a difficult time functioning normally in society, and it is difficult for them to accept the fact that they have problems.

Substance related disorders can be categorized into three major types: substance induced, substance abuse, and substance dependency. The three sound very similar, but have distinct differences.

“Substance-induced disorders have similar symptoms as a mental health disorder … but are the direct result of alcohol or other drug use (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). For example, a substance-induced disorder may have symptoms of psychosis. When a person discontinues their substance use, the symptoms they are experiencing will either cease or significantly decrease.

Citizens with a substance abuse disorder are in the stage of their substance use where it’s starting to become what’s most important to them, “resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home” (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). People with a substance abuse disorder start messing up their professional lives because of how often they’re using the substance.

People that are substance dependant have to have the substance to survive. Their bodies are dependent on the substance, either their bodies or their minds. Whenever one would attempt to quit, their bodies experience withdrawal symptoms such as tremors or hallucinations. “A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance” (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin). Individuals are willing to do almost anything to obtain the substance, even if it is difficult or dangerous because of their need for it.

Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders. When an individual goes through treatment there are several ways to go about the task at hand. For a person with a Co-Occurring disorder, they must be treated for their mental health and substance use problems. Both disorders can be treated separately, but studies have shown that treating both at once is much more effective.

One part of treatment is treating the mental illness. Two forms of mental illness treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy, and dialectic behavioral therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy has to do with changing the way a person is thinking. “It is a therapeutic approach that seeks to modify negative or self-defeating thoughts and behavior” (Substance Abuse Treatment 125). Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive outpatient program of individual therapy and group skills training developed to enhance the client’s social environment skills (Daley and Moss 153).

Substance use treatments are for the users, abusers, and the substance dependant. Two types of substance use treatments are group therapy and self help groups. Self help groups are put on by people who are suffering from similar or common conditions. They hold meetings in order to “self help” themselves. Self help groups are great because of their availability, affordability, and it “gives the people a sense of belonging… and hope” (Simpson, Perra, and Corwin).

Another way to go about starting recovery is treating both disorders from the beginning. There are several therapy groups specifically organized for co-occurring disorders. Some are called Dual Recovery Anonymous, Double Trouble in Recovery, Dual Diagnosis Anonymous, and so on. The different groups have different methods and steps for the journey of recovery.

IDDT is a treatment method that “helps people address both disorders at the same time – in the same service organization by the same team of treatment providers” (“Medical Professionals: IDDT”). IDDT treatment consists of a group of people that all help their


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