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Liberalism and Foreign Policy

Autor:   •  January 10, 2019  •  3,035 Words (13 Pages)  •  23 Views

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[6]The liberal tradition in international relations is closely connected with the emergence of the modern liberal state. The process of modernization in society and in international relations brought new political and economic system which was against the lust of human power. Although liberals were successful to deliver their idea of progress and prosperity in the world but some events changed all thoughts for example 9/11 attacks on united states and after world revised many thinks of liberalism.

Individualism and decentralization is the central theme of liberalism. The core assumption of liberalism is progress where supreme importance of individual over all centralized structures but liberalism is not in favor of absolute freedom of individual. According to john stuart mill “ the only purpose for which power can rightfully be exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others”. The reason for liberalism is to realize human kind from its bondage to supersession and ignorance because states are exists for their citizens and basic concept of the creation of state is to protect their citizens from any undue pressure and threat. In the opinion of liberalism states are constitutional entity. It gives emphasis on the importance of discussion, debate and arguments and keeps the world away from conflicts and wars which are not inevitable. With the reasoning and arguments people can achieve mutual benefits. Liberalism refuses the system of injustice and inequality and disapproves a system of privileges that are enjoyed by a few and denied to every one else. Liberalism refers that human being are seen as born equal and having equal moral worth. [7]human progress, human reasoning and cooperation is the basic assumptions of liberalism which produces modernization and the development of modernization. Modernization is the process of development in most of the areas of life and cooperation among the international actors out of the boundaries. The outcomes of modernization and cooperation are global development that make life of the people easier.

[8]There are some types of liberalism:

- Classical liberalism:-

This is the oldest and earlier type of liberalism. Classical liberalism developed in the transition from feudalism to capitalism and reached its highest form in the industrial era.

Classical liberalism discusses about egoistic individualism, that human beings are rationally self interested and capable of self reliance and external restraints should be eliminated. Liberals wants to construct a collaborative, social, progressive and peaceful society. According to thomas paine the state is a “necessary evil” and there must be minimal state intervention and civil society should play their role in the development.

- Economic liberalism :-

Economic liberalism derives from the political economy theories of Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Economic liberalism applies the classical liberalism concept of minimal intervention of the state in the economy policy. Economic liberalism is an anti-thesis to mercantilism.

- Neoliberalism :-

Neoliberalism was revived in 1970’s. It was an advanced form of economic liberalism and discussed market fundamentalism which sees the market as morally and practically strong to the government in terms of political control. World bank, world trade organization and international monetary fund are examples of Neoliberalism.

- Modern liberalism :-

Modern liberalism originated in 20th century and responses to the growing problems brought about by unrestrained economic individualism which led to the disadvantage of the working class, spread of poverty, disease and ignorance.

[9]After second world war liberalism divided in four strands of thinking.

- Sociological liberalism:-

Social liberals believes that the international relations are not only state to state relations. International relations are based upon transitional relations between people, group and organizations belongs to different countries. James rosenau explains transnationalism as “the process whereby international relations conducted by governments have been supplemented by relations among private, individuals, groups and societies that can and do have important consequences for the course of events”.

- Interdependence liberalism:-

Interdependence liberalism refers to the mutual dependence of people and states on the other people and states. The world turned into new era after 1950s with the industrialization. Before 50s world has been faced two world wars and militarization which removed the confidence of dependence on each others but industrialization reshape the world and countries make themselves strong economically. New relations built through foreign trade among the countries.

- Institutional liberalism:-

According to the institutional liberals international institutions have an impact on international relations. European Union, United nations organization are international organizations which does work with the set of rules under a particular area. These institutions helps to promote cooperation among state countries.

- Republican liberalism:-

Republican liberals believes that the democratic governments are peaceful and law abiding than any other political system. Democratic governments resolve conflicts peacefully because they holds a mandate of their citizens. Democratic norms of peaceful resolution of conflict, peaceful relations between democratic states based on a common moral foundation and economic co-operation between democracies ties of interdependence are the basic values of republican liberalism.

[10]Liberalism and world order:-

Another attempt to introducing liberalism in a new way is structural liberalism. This type of liberalism is to characterize with five major western order. These five elements are:-

- Security co-binding

- Penetrated reciprocal hegemony

- Semi-sovereign and partial great powers

- Economic openness

- Civic identity

Security co-binding refers to the relationship among the states for mutual security with the practice of mutually

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