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Identifying Barriers to Inclusion

Autor:   •  December 2, 2018  •  2,384 Words (10 Pages)  •  74 Views

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There are several barriers that down syndrome child may face in assessing the service of community. Some are social, medical, individual, physical and academic . There are two main models of disability, the medical model and the social model. These models encourage people to think about disability in different ways, therefore it is important to understand the difference between the models. The medical model of disability is often used by health professionals. The social model of disability has been created by, and is often used by, disabled people themselves. Therefore the social model tends to be the preferred model of disability. The medical model disability is an individual’s state, it’s how a person’s impairment causes them difficulties in society (e.g. a person with a hearing impairment has difficulties in some settings, because they cannot hear very well), An increase in inclusion can only occur if the disabled person makes adaptations themselves (e.g. by learning to lip read) , Medical treatment can reduce the disability of a person. The aim for the social model is to remove barriers so that a disabled person can have the same opportunities has everyone else. Society has started to change because a person with impairment can use public transport and gain full access to building thus making them no different to an able bodied person.

Most children with down syndrome struggle with basic number skills. Important foundations for understanding mathematics are established in the preschool years as children explore their physical world and start to learn to count. Young children begin to develop an understanding of shapes, sizes, positions, patterns and quantity in play and daily activities before they learn to count. When children begin to learn to count they can link what they have learned about quantity, size and position to help them understand the number system. Here is an activity , easy way to help students work on their number sense and memory. Need; flashcards, Stickers. What we have to do is Set up your flashcards by writing numerals on half of them, and placing stickers equal to the numerals on the other half. Adapt this activity by keeping the numbers small and not using an overwhelming number of cards. Place all the cards face down and have students try to match the numerals to the right amount of stickers. You can also model this activity for your students and repeat it several times so students can catch on to what they're expected to do in this activity. For picture the number (Students can use this activity to get used to numbers). Need materials are papers with the outlines of large numbers printed on them, leaves, crayons or markers We have to do is Hand out papers and leaves. Instruct your students to cover the leaves with the paper and rub their crayons or markers over them to color in the numbers. Use modeling to show students what they need to do. This activity can help get students familiar with different numbers in a fun way.

Dhivehi subject, Developing language should be fun for your child with the majority of learning through natural play activities along with some short structured practice children with down syndrome mostly they struggle with writing and reading. A good place to start is using objects and toys and then progressing to pictures of these objects and toys. Children need to learn that a picture represents an object, that is, that the picture is a symbol. Also, children need to learn that the sign represents the object, that is, the sign is a symbol. Another symbol for an object is the written word. And also give choices between objects. Children can start by pointing and selecting without using sounds and/or words and progress to using sounds and/or words and/or signs. Give your child time to show what they know and what they want and look for all their ways of communicating, that is, body movements, facial expressions, sounds, words. Respond to all their word attempts. Encourage repetition of the words. First a child develops an understanding of object labels, that is, the name of things, then they learn the function of the objects, for example, which one do you eat?; then they learn that items can go together, for example, key goes with a door; then they learn to categories objects into categories, for example, putting all the colors together and putting all the body parts together. When learning vocabulary we can work through these stages.

Children with down syndrome usually experience considerable delay and difficulties when learning to talk, though they typically understand much more than they can express. Teaching English language ,child the meaning of signs and symbols can help them to communicate as his/her language skills are emerging. Take pictures of objects or activities your child likes so he can "ask" for what he wants by pointing or handing you the picture. Always encourage him/ her to say the word too.

Children with down syndrome need more time before they form multi-word phrases. Research shows that they generally have a 100-word vocabulary (including signs and/or spoken words) before they begin to put words together. Transition your child from a one-word to a two-word stage by using a technique of imitation with expansion. First, repeat a word your child has said and then expand it by one word. For example, if your child says "boat" while playing, follow up by saying, "Boat. Boat go." If she says "doll," you could say "Doll. Black doll." Repetition is essential, so don't get frustrated if you have to do it many times ( Vila,2016). For writing, here is an hands on activity helps students practice creating shapes or letters. Provide, a tray with rainbow colored tape covering the inside, salt. Then tell to Place some salt in the tray and instruct students to use their fingers to create different shapes or letters. Teacher can adapt this activity by drawing the shape or letter you'd like them to practice on your whiteboard.

When we creative inclusive education, academic and social benefits for all students both those who have special needs as well as typical students. Friendships develop, typically developing students are more appreciative of differences and students with disabilities are more motivated. True acceptance of diversity will ultimately develop within the school environment and is then carried into the home, workplace, and community. The goal of inclusion is not to erase differences, but to enable all students to belong within an educational community that validates and values their individuality.


Buckley, S. (2000). Teaching reading to develop speech and language. Presented at the 3rd



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